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Duke, L., Kihara, M. 1998. Water Quality Concerns and Regulatory Controls for Nonstorm Water Discharges to Storm Drains. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, VA. Volume 34, Number 3.
impacts, policy, water quality, dry-weather flow
Nonstorm water discharges to municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) are notable for spatial and temporal variability in volume, pollutant type, pollutant concentration, and activity of origin. The objective of this paper was to determine whether current technical knowledge and existing U.S. policy support an improved regulatory approach. Specific research objectives were to comprehensively identify discharge types, characterize their prevalence in California, analyze relevant local and regional regulatory guidelines, and systematically evaluate opinions of experts about potential water quality impacts.