Hirschman, D, Seipp, B, and Schueler, T. 2017.Performance Enhancing Devices for Stormwater Best Management Practices. Prepared by Hirschman Water & Environment, LLC, Center for Watershed Protection, and Chesapeake Network. 38 pages
This report focuses on the capability of performance enhancing devices (PEDs) to increase nitrogen and phosphorus removal in bioretention, sand filters and other low impact development (LID) practices. Common PED strategies include adding media amendments, incorporating an internal water storage (IWS) zone in the underdrain system and maximizing plant uptake. This report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature review and recommends options for potentially crediting PEDs by adapting existing Chesapeake Bay nutrient reduction protocols.