Irvine, K., Rossi, M., Vermette, S., Bakert, J., Kleinfelder, K. 2011. Illicit discharge detection and elimination: Low cost options for source identification and trackdown in stormwater systems. Urban Water Journal. Taylor & Francis, London, England. Volume 8, Number 6. Pages 379-395
bacteria, IDDE, urban, Stormwater
Permit regulations in the U.S. for Municipal Separate Storm Systems (MS4) require the MS4 to develop a program that detects and eliminates illicit discharges (e.g. improper wastewater connections) into the storm sewer system. Municipalities are interested in cost-effective methods to meet the permit requirements of this federal mandate.